Supposedly, it is one of the greatest benefits of OOP. Even though it is most commonly associated with object-oriented programming, the concept itself is in fact separate from it and can be implemented without using objects. Abstraction is a complementary concept to encapsulation here; where encapsulation hides internal information, abstraction provides an easier-to-use public interface to data. In any case, it is not uniquely a OOP feature and can be done with modules isolating a system function or a set of data and operations on those data within a module.
Title Image in this blog tells us some OOP concepts.Objects are real-world entities,Class is the blueprint of Objects,For example, that plant in the title image is an object of a class, its branches are also the objects of the same class, and its sub-branches are also the objects of the same class, and so on..recursively..
Now, all the other tenets of OOP are useful too, but I think the issue is that the examples used to teach those concepts, especially inheritance and polymorphism, are often silly if not downright bad designs.
There is one thing in the article I have to disagree with: Inheritance is not a marker of OOP. Subtyping is a marker of OOP and inheritance is most often the implementation of this concept in a specific programming language. Prototypes or copying from an existing object are other ways to implement subtyping.
in order to understand the reason for the rise and fall of certain paradigms you need to understand an map the evolution of software systems and the adjacent data transport infrastructures. Small linear systems allow heavy application of algorithm driven design that favors functional design, such systems however are not flexible, there is a certain tolerance in which you can stretch the input and expect a valid output. Another problem with such systems is the way they mutate as they generate knowledge about the problem they are designed to solve- although as correctly pointed in the article linear execution is the way the processor runs the code, the learning curves and the changes that come with them are non linear and not continuous- this makes the scalability of such systems poor. On the other end big non-linear systems that address a domain of problems favor object design. This adds additional complexity because the design itself requires the build-up of meta-knowledge of the problem domain at hand, and a planned approach that transforms that meta-knowledge to a continuous coherent structure.
Well your title is certainly provocative, but inaccurate. Most technology seems to evolve in a Hegelian fashion because humans are driving it. As one becomes older they have the opportunity to see this more and more. The younger generation tends to be more vocal and champions their particular beliefs which are by definition myopic. Functional programming has a light shining on it now as the antithesis of the object based paradigm. As things evolve we will find some synthesis that includes concepts from both. Object oriented software evolved as way to manage complexity in systems that were becoming increasingly complex. It does this exceedingly well. If you have over worked on a very large complex system, being able to address it at different levels of complexity, hierarchically is a god send over the alternative. It is especially beneficial to other team members who may be new to a system and have to learn it. Having objects structured in the language of the domain being addressed makes this possible. It is also interesting to see a sophisticated object system become slightly more than the some of its parts as the virtual models shape themselves to the natural objects and relationships they represent. Larger, complex systems are its sweet spot.
The seven principles of design have been around for a very long time, and their shared goal is to help guide designers on how to get the very best out of their work. They do this by focusing on the key attributes of each element and how altering even the most minute detail can have a large impact on the overall design.
In a conference room, a podium is used to bring emphasis to the person who is speaking, whereas in a theater performance, a spotlight is used to bring emphasis to a single performer during their monologue. Similarly, a designer will use a variety of different techniques to make a specific component of the visual design stand out. When done correctly, this can be a useful tool to bring attention to a specific area of the composition.
As previously mentioned, unity is achieved once the design has reached a state of harmony between its internal parts. This is done by first going through each of the other design principles to assess how they are being used within the overall design to ensure each element is having its intended and desired effect.
On the implementation level, when a coder needs to repeat a snippet of code on a new page, the reusable component is right there for them to copy and paste. When a designer needs to whip up a new landing page, all the pre-designed UI symbol elements are ready to drop in and can be non-destructably edited. When a marketer needs to send out a newsletter, there is no question as to the kind of tone the copy should be written in or what the header image should be. It's all there, clearly laid out and because everyone has discussed, contributed to and agreed upon it there is no question as to what and how things need to be done.
For the purposes of this article rather than talk about how to create a design system, we are going to look at design systems from another angle and show you how you can use them and as a study guide to understanding UI/UX and product design practices and implementation.
So how can you learn from this? Say you're designing an e-commerce site and the menu needs a dropdown for categories. Not sure what size your arrow should be on the dropdown or how far away from the text to place it or what it should look like when it's fully expanded? Well, you can look to a shopping system pioneer like Shopify to see how they do it!
Microsoft's Inclusive Design methodology is born out of digital environments. It enables and draws on the full range of human diversity. Most importantly, this means including and learning from people with a range of perspectives. They believe that exclusion happens when we solve problems using our own biases. As Microsoft designers, they seek out those exclusions, and use them as opportunities to create new ideas and inclusive designs:
The style of this design system can inspire other similar collaboration and management tools that you're working on such as team collaboration, product management tools, project management tools, team chats, help desks, knowledge-bases
If you're working on a project in the realm of email, marketing, business, strategy or ads, Mailchimp can provide some useful tips and examples of how to do it right while still pushing the boundaries of expression and creativity. There are many innovative design ideas to pull from and ways to make complex tasks (such as creating automated email campaigns and newsletters); normally relegated to power users, marketing gurus or tech-savvy individuals, more accessible through approachable and intuitive UX.
Not the most glamorous of design systems, but believe it or not the U.S government actually has design principles and guidelines for their online touch-points! Not to be underestimated or understated, government websites (probably more than any other) touch every single one of us and while many have a long way to go in terms of improving UX, it's nice to know that some focus is being put into the development of this sector.
So those are our choices for top design systems and what you can learn from them. Hopefully, this will have you seeing them in a new light; as learning tools and resources to help you understand UI, UX and product design better and give you inspiration when applying it to your own work.
Begin with buttons that have clear meanings. Some concepts are more straightforward to model than others. Start with tangible, concrete, actionable concepts (e.g. SCRITCHES, PLAY) that your learner can easily comprehend and form firm associations with. They need to understand when this button is pressed, this specific thing happens. Think about things your learner is already familiar with, regardless of whether it has a word paired with it yet. Ideally, these are things they already ask for with natural communication. Introducing abstract concepts like LOVE YOU or MAD too early might prevent them from forming the desired associations with each button which can hinder overall progress and comprehension long term.
WATER might not be the most exciting button for every learner but it is a primary need, making it a valuable concept and practical button. Playing Water Modeling games can help increase the value of this button to make it more interesting and fun for your learner.
Reveal is another new design element being introduced with Fluent Design, which follows the cursor when hovering over certain elements within the OS and apps. As of right now, you can find Reveal in the Action Center, Start menu and My People hub, and in XAML based lists and menus.
Depth, Parallax and Motion are the rarest new design elements being implemented right now. As far as I can tell, there are no known instances where motion has been applied to the OS. I've only found it sparsely in a couple of Microsoft's first-party apps. Motion is the element of Fluent Design that's supposed to give Windows 10 some wow factor when jumping between different areas of an app or the system.
One of Windows 10's weak points is definitely its design language, but with Fluent Design that's starting to change. There's a lot to Windows, and Fluent Design is being slowly implemented across the OS. If there's something you've noticed that I missed, please let me know. So far, the work Microsoft has done with the latest Redstone 4 preview builds is fantastic, and I can't wait to see it continue to evolve. 2b1af7f3a8